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Filtration Glossary
 
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  SAND FILTER
  Filter composed of layers of sand, graded in particle size so that the coarse particles face the unfiltered flow. Commonly employed in filtration of water supplies. Filters of this type (perhaps incorporating crushed coke and grit) have occasionally been used for removal of particles fromgases. See deep bed.
   
  SCAVENGER
  A filter or element in the bottom of a filter that recovers the liquid heel that remains in a filter tank at the end of a cycle.
   
  SCFD
  Standard Cubic Feet per Day.
   
  SCFM
  Standard Cubic Feet per Minute. The volume of gas flow per minute at standard temperature and pressure conditions (70°F at sea level).
   
  SCREEN
  Covering for filter element for physical protection; also used as a basic material for a separator element or the basket strainer.
   
  SCRUBBER
  Any device in which a contaminant, solid or gaseous, is removed from a gas stream by impacting it with liquid droplets. (Types include spray towers, packed towers, cyclone scrubbers, jet scrubbers, venturi scrubbers and impingement scrubbers.)
   
  SEAL NUT
  Gasketed nut which holds element cap in place.
   
  SELF-CLEANING
  Filtering device designed to clean itself by the use of a blowdown or backwash action. Medium is commonly a screen mounted on a cylindrical drum or device that removes bulk solids from large flow rates. Baffle in first stage aids in the separation of solids by impingement. Blowdown may be continual or intermittent and operated either manually or automatically by instruments.
   
  SEPARATOR/FILTER
  A vessel which removes solids and entrained liquids from another liquid or gas, using some combination of a baffle and/or coalesce, filter or separator elements. A vessel may be single stage, two stage, or single or two stage with prefilter section for gross solids removal. The usual application is the removal of water from gas or another immiscible liquid. General reference to term applies the equipment capable of both separation and filtration to specific degree of efficiencies.
   
  SEPTUM
  Any permeable material that supports the filter media.
   
  SERIAL FILTRATION
  Filtration through two or more filters of decreasing pore size one after the other to increase throughput, filtration efficiency, or to protect the final filter.
   
  SERVICE LIFE
  The length of time an element operates before reaching the maximum alloawable pressure drop.
   
  SINGED FINISH
  The process of removing fibers from a cartridge or fabric by passing over a flame or other heat source. The process creates a smooth finish that inhibits fiber migration.
   
  Slug
  Dirt, carbon, water and chemical compounds found in oils.
   
  SLUG CATCHER
  A particular separator’s design able to absorb sustained in-flow of large liquid volumes at irregular intervals. Usually found on gas gathering systems of other two-phase pipeline systems. A slug catcher may be a single large vessel or a main folded system of pipes.
   
  SLURRY
  Thin, watery suspension; a material to be filtered.
   
  SPECIFICATION
  The document that describes in detail the requirements with which a product or service has to comply.
   
  STATIC PRESSURE
  The potential pressure exerted in all directions by a fluid at rest. For a fluid in motion it is measured in a direction normal to the direction of flow. Usually expressed in inches water gauge when dealing with air.
   
  STATIC PRESSURE DROP
  The change in static pressure as the gas stream goes through the filter media and the filtration system ductwork.
   
  STOCK’S DIAMETER
  Diameter of a sphere having the same density and the same free speed as the particle when moving in a homogeneous fluid, of the same density and viscosity, under conditions of laminar flow.
   
  STOCK’S LAW
  A physical law which approximates the velocity of a particle falling under the action of gravity through a fluid. The particle will accelerate until the fractional drag of the fluid just balance the gravitational acceleration, after which it will continue to fall at a constant velocity known as the terminal or free-settling velocity.
   
  SUMP
  Collecting area of a housing, located downstream from the coalesce elements, in which coalesced droplets of the dispersed phase are deposited; also called water leg. May also be used to collect solids in applications where gross solids are present in a stream; also called sump.
   
  SURFACE AREA
  The total area of an element that is exposed to a approaching flow.
   
  SURFACE FILTRATION
  A process that traps contaminants larger than the pore size on the top surface of the filter, usually a PTFE membrane. Contaminants smaller than the specified pore size may pass through the membrane or may be captured within the membrane by some other mechanism.
   
  SURFACE TENSION
  Also “interfacial tension.” Tendency of the surface of a liquid to contract to the smallest area possible under the existing circumstances. Difined as a force in dynes action on a line 1 cm long lying in the surface of the liquid.
   
  SUSPENSION
  Solids or liquids that are held in other liquids.
   
  SWING BOLT
  Type of housing head closure which reduces service time. Opposite ot thru-bolt flange where studs and nuts are used, such as with ASA type flanges.
   
   
   
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