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Filtration Glossary
 
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  DEAD END FILTRATION
  A mode of filtration where the fluid contacts the filter material at 90° C. All the fluid must pass through the filter material to reach the downstream side. Most cartridge filtration works in this mode.
   
  DEFORMABLE
  Used to describe suspended solids that extrude into the interstices of a filter cake and cause rapid filter plugging.
   
  DEGREE OF FILTRATION
  A reusable filter consisting of a tube made from ceramic or metal. Flow is from the outside-in with particulate accumulating on the outside of the candle. The candle can be cleaned by various means, including back-pulsing, heats chemical, etc.
   
  DEHYDRATION
  Removal of water or hydrocarbon in vapor form from an air or gas; also water from another immiscible liquid.
   
  DELTA P
  A symbol (?p) designation pressure drop. The difference in pressure between two points, generally measured at the inlet and outlet point of a filter, separator/ filter, etc.
   
  DEPTH
  A filter medium which primarily retains contaminants with the tortous passages within the thickness of the element wall.
   
  DEPTH FILTRATION
  A process that entraps contaminants both within the matrix and on the surface of the filter media.
   
  DESALINATION
  Production of fresh (potable) water from sea water, salt or brackish water by one of several processes, e.g., distillation, flash distillation, electrodialysis or reverse osmosis if salt content is not too high.
   
  DEWATER
  Removal of water from solids.
   
  DEW POINT
  The temperature at which condensation begins to form as a gas is cooled.
   
  DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (Delta P)
  The difference between static pressure measured at the inlet and outlet of a component device.
   
  DIFFERENTIAL RATING
  Differential pressure specified as the maximum an element will withstand without structural failure.
   
  DIFFUSION
  A natural phenomena of gas passing through a liquid film in a membrane from the high pressure to the low pressure side.
   
  DIFFUSION INTERCEPTION
  In gas filtration, at low gas flow velocities, very small particles <0.1 µm are subject to Brown motion. Thus they can move out of the gas streamlines and become intercepted by the filter.
   
  DIMENSIONAL STABILITY
  The ability of the fabric to retain finished dimensions under stress at operating conditions. This stability is imparted to a fabric by chemical treatment, mechanical means, construction or blends.
   
  DIRECTION OF FLOW
  Direction in which product flows through element; may be from inside to outside, from outside to inside, or end to end, depending on the design of the element.
   
  DIRECT INTERCEPTION
  In gas filtration, particles larger than the pores are removed by direct interception with the filter surface. Some particles smaller than pores can be removed as well depending on the probability, which is proportional to their size, of hitting the surface.
   
  DIRT HOLDING CAPACITY
  Volume of contaminate an element can hold before reaching the maximum allowable pressure drop. Volume will vary depending on the size and design of the element and the density of the solid particles. Usually reported by weight such as grams or pounds per element. Also called solids retention or solids holding capacity.
   
  DISCONTINUOUS PHASE
  Separated phase or product from the continuous phase. Example: water maybe the discontinuous phase when separated from hydrocarbon, air or gas.
   
  DISPOSABLE FILTER
  Those filter not cleaned or reused. Referred to as one-time of single-use filters.
   
  DOWNSTREAM
  Portion of the product steam which has already passed through the system or the portion of a system located after, separator/filter etc.
   
  DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING
  Product recovery operations after a primary production process such as fermentation.
   
  DRAIN
  A low level point valve connection on a filter or system to allow drainage of liquid.
   
  DROPLET
  Minute drop which mates to form larger drops capable of falling by gravity.
   
  DRY SCRUBBER
  A chemical reaction chamber that neutralizes acids in a gas stream. Two system types are common: the spray dryer system injects a slurry, whereas dry sorbent injection systems use a dry powder.
   
  DUPLEX FILTER
  Assembly of two filters with valving for selection of either or both filters.
   
  DUST (OR MIST) CONCENTRATION
  The weight of dust or mist contained in a unit of gas; e.g., pounds per thousand pounds of gas, grains per actual cubic foot of gas or grains per standard dry cubic foot (the temperature and pressure of the gas must be specified if given as volume).
   
  DUSTCAKE
  Desired dust buildup on fabric to filter incoming gases and keep particulate on fabric surface.
   
  DUST LOADING
  The weight of solid particulate suspended in an air (gas) stream, usually expressed in terms of grains per cubic foot, grams per cubic meter or pounds per thousand pounds of gas.
   
  DYNE
  The amount of force that causes a mass of one gram to alter its speed by one centimeter per second for each second during which the force acts.
   
   
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