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Filtration Glossary
 
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
  CAKE
  Solids deposited on the filter medium during filtration.
   
  CAKE RELEASE
  Ability of medium to allow clean separation of the cake from the medium.
   
  Candle filter
  A reusable filter consisting of a tube made from ceramic or metal. Flow is from the outside-in with particulate accumulating on the outside of the candle. The candle can be cleaned by various means, including back-pulsing, heats chemical, etc.
   
  CANOPY
  An air filtration structure utilizing fabric filter bags for the purpose of removing solid particulate from the gas stream; dust collector.
   
  CAP-ELEMENT
  Component which covers one end of an element and holds the element in place in the housing. Sometimes called a yoke.
   
  CAP-END
  The end of many types of filter cartridges. In particular, the shallow annular dish into which the ends of a pleated paper filter cylinder are adhesively bonded to form a pleated paper cartridge.
   
  CAPILLARY
  A very thin tube, in filtration, is used as an example to describe pores in a membrane.
   
  CAPTURE VELOCITY
  The air velocity at any point in front of the hood or at the hood opening necessary to prevent particulate material and contaminant gases from escaping to the working area.
   
  CARTRIDGE
  A filter for the clarification of process liquids containing small amounts of solids. Made of a porous medium, it is used in a vessel,which performs the actual filtration process.
   
  CAUSTIC
  A Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) solution.
   
  CELLULOSE
 
The preponderant and essential constituent of all vegetable tissues and fibers. Ideal cellulose material provides for a variety of filtration efficiencies, low initial pressure drop, high wet strength and solids retention.
   
  CENTER CORE
  Material formed into a tube or cylinder for structural purpose to permit a cartridge to retain its original physical form.
   
  CENTER-ROD
  The component of a vessel used for mounting the cartridge in the vessel, usually made of a round bar material. A center pipe can also be used for the same purpose, but is made instead with perforated effect and directs flow through the cartridge.
   
  CENTER SEA
  Part which forms seal between two elements when one element is one the top of another element. May also be called an adoptor.
   
  CENTER TUBE
  Component of an element or cartridge which supports the medium at the center of smallest diameter.
   
  CENTIPOISE (cP)
  (N s/m2; N = Newton) A unit of absolute viscosity. One centipoises equals 0.01 stoke.
   
  CENTISTOKE (cSt)
  A unit of kinematic viscosity (m2/s). One centistokes equals 0.01 stoke
   
  CENTRIFUGATION
  The process of separating two substances of differing densities by high speed spinning to create centrifugal force. Typically used to separate suspended particles from liquid.
   
  CFM
  Cubic Feet per Minute. A unit of measure for volumetric gas flow.
   
  CHAR
  A carbonaceous material in dust usually incompletely burned fuel, which has larger particles than the rest of the dust.
   
  CHARLES’ LAW
  If the pressure on a given kind of gas is held constant, its density is inversely proportional to its absolute temperature. See Avogadro’s Law and Boyle’s Law.
   
  CIP
  Clean-in-place. A method whereby a filter medium can be chemically cleaned to restore performance without requiring removal from the system.
   
  CLARIFICATION
  To clear a liquid by filtration, by the addition of agents to precipitate solids, or by other means.
   
  Clarifier
  An apparatus for the removal of settleable solids from a fluid by gravity.
   
  CLARITY
  Clearness of a liquid measured by the amount of contaminants remaining.
   
  CLEAN AIR PLENUM
  The baghouse area, through which gases are directed, located on the clean side of the bags above the tubesheet in a pulse-jet baghouse.
   
  CLEAN WATER PRESSURE DROP
 
Differential pressure across the new filter as measured using clean water at a particular flow rate.
   
  CLOGGING
  The process of solids being removed by a filter, block the filter increasing differential pressure.
   
  CLOTH WEIGHT
  Fabric weight expressed in oz/ yard2.
   
  COAGULATION
  Growing together of minute particles to form larger ones, which are called flocs and are easier to filter. Also referred to as flocculation.
   
  COALESCER
  Mechanical device which unites discrete droplets of one phase prior to being separated from a second phase. Can be accomplished only when both phases are immiscible. Requires a tight medium which is preferentially wettable and, by its nature of being tight, is also a good filtering material. Good coalescing permites gravity separation of the discontinuous phase. Coalescing may be accomplished by only a coalescer cartridge when the specific gravities of the two phases are widely separated. As the gravities difference becomes less, the two stage principle is generally required where finely coalesced discontinuous droplets are repelled by the second stage separator cartridges.
   
  COALESCING
  The action of uniting of small droplets of one liquid preparatory to its being separated from another liquid.
   
  COATING
  Immersion of filter media in a solution to provide the fibers with a coating that will lubricate and thereby reduce self-abrasion.
   
  Colapse presure
  The outside-in differential pressure that causes the structure of a filter medium failure of filter element.
   
  COLLECTION EFFICIENCY
  A measure of dust collector ability to remove particulate from the inlet gas expressed in percent.
   
  COLLECTION SURFACES
  Clean-in-place. A method whereby a filter medium can be chemically cleaned to restore performance without requiring removal from the system.
   
  COLLECTION SURFACE AREA
  The total flat projected area of collecting surface exposed to the active electrical field (effective length x effective height x 2 x number of gas passages).
   
  Coloid
  Very small, insoluble nondiffusible solid or liquid gelatinous particles that remain suspension in a surrounding liquid. Solids usually on the order of a 0,2 microns or less.
   
  COMBINATION FABRIC
  A woven fabric containing both filament and spun yarn of the same or different fibers. The filament yarn is normally used length-wise for strength and spun cross-wise to provide surface area.
   
  COMPATIBILITY
  Term used in relation to the non-reactivity of filter materials with the substance to be filtered.
   
  COMPLIANCE
  An indication or judgement that the product or service meets the agreed requirement of the relevant specification; also the state of meeting the requirements.
   
  COMPRESSIBILITY
 
Degree of physical change in filter cake particles when subjected to normal pressures. Also a factor when selecting gasket material.
   
  CONCENTRATE
  The non-filtered stream leaving a crossflow filter system. Also called Return, Recycle, Recirculation, or Reject.
   
  CONDENSATE
  The liquid formed by the drop in pressure and hence temperature of steam.
   
  CONDENSATION
  The process of cooling a vapour below its boiling point in order to liquefy it.
   
  CONSISTENCY OF FEED
  Usually refers to the ratio of solids to liquid in the feed.
   
  CONTAMINANT
  Any undersirable particle or impurity in a stream.
   
  Continuous phase
  Basic product flowing through a filter or filter separator, which continues on through the system after being subjected to solids and/or other liquid separation.
   
  CONTROL DAMPER
  A device installed in a duct to regulate the gas flow by degree of closure. Examples: butterfly or multi-louver.
   
  CONVERSION
  In general, refers to the changing of one type of medium to another type for a specific purpose.
   
  CORONIZING
  A heat cleaning process for fiberglass fabric to burn off the starches (used in processing) usually at temperatures of 1,000`F. for a short duration.
   
  CORROSION
  Chemical attack on metallic surfaces, usually caused by moisture and/or acid dew point excursions. Removal of solids and water reduces the effect or speed of corrosion in many cases, and in other cases, corrosion inhibitors are used to reduce the effect of corrosion.
   
  COUNT OF CLOTH
  The number of ends (lengthlongitudinal yarns) and picks (cross-horizontal yarns) per inch in a woven fabric.
   
  CRITICAL OPERATING PRESSURE
  Pressure above which filtration or separation equipment may produce reduced efficiency or fail to function properly.
   
  CROSSFLOW ( TANGENTIAL FLOW) FILTRATION
 
A mode of filtration where the fluid moves across the surface of the filter material tangentially. The fluid is recirculated and passes the filter material several times. These have the effect of cleaning away debris build up from the surface which prolongs flow. A small stream of clean liquid known as the permeate passes through the filter material. RO and UF operates under this mode. Some MF systems can be found operating like this.
   
  CYCLONE
  A conical-shaped vessel for separating mixed sized particulates from the gas stream. The vessel has a tangential entry at the largest diameter allowing the larger particles to drop out and be removed from the bottom of the cone while smaller particulate exits overhead with the majority of the gas stream.
   
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